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Wendy Tori
Associate Professor of Biology; Martha Sykes Hansen Endowed Chair in Biology for Ornithology

Wendy Tori is field ecologist and ornithologist with area of focus on bird ecology, behavior, genetics and evolution. Her current research with undergraduates involves working in the field (Amazon and the U.S. Midwest) and in the molecular genetics lab, with Manakins, Bluebirds and Turtles. Wendy loves fieldwork and is deeply interested in Ecology, Environmental Science, Ornithology, Conservation and leading off-campus programs. Wendy regularly engages students in conducting research in the Amazon Rainforest, Ecuador, Peru, Borneo, Indiana and pretty much anywhere she goes around the world.

Contact Info

Campus Mail
Drawer 3



140 Stanley Hall

Website Link


  • Biology
  • Environmental Sustainability
  • Anthrozoology Applied Minor
  • Art, Nature and Conservation Applied Minor


  • Ph.D., University of Missouri, St. Louis (Ecology)
  • M.S., University of Missouri, St. Louis (Biology)
  • P.G.C., Universidad Nacional Agraria La Molina (Environmental Quality Assessment)
  • B.S., Universidad Nacional Agraria La Molina (Biology)

Selected Courses:

BIOL 111: Ecological Biology

BIOL 321: Conservation Biology

BIOL 380: Ornithology

BIOL 383: Field Ornithology

BIOL 399: Island Biogeography and Conservation (New Zealand)

BIOL 400: Animal Behavior

BIOL 410: Applications of GIS in Ecology, Environmental and Health Sciences

BIOL 420: Seminar in Sexual Selection

I study ecology and the factors that shape reproductive behavior in birds. During the last seven years, undergraduate students at Earlham have joined me in the Field (Amazon Rainforest) and in the Lab to help answer questions related to ecological, behavioral, environmental and genetic factors influencing the outcomes of mate competition, mate choice and reproductive success in wild populations. Students have engaged in using a combination of field techniques and tracking of marked individuals (field work) and molecular genetic techniques (e.g., paternity analysis using microsatellite markers). Currently, I am using two species as model systems to answer these questions: White-crowned Manakins (Dixiphia pipra) in Eastern Amazonia-Ecuador and Eastern Bluebirds (Sialia sialis) in Indiana.


A second focus of my research is the study of lek mating systems. In lekking species adult males cluster to display for females. Typically only a few males monopolize most of the matings and others do not mate at all. This leads to the question: Why do males join leks, when their probability of reproductive success is so low? I am interested in studying the evolution of these male aggregations and I am using Manakins (Pipridae, Amazon Rainforest) as my model systems.


Lastly, I collaborate with Dr. John Iverson to study the mating systems of Painted Turtles (Nebraska) and Allen Cays Rock Iguana (Exumas islands, Bahamas). Both projects actively engage students in research during the summer, spring and fall semesters.

*indicates with students

Tori, W.P, A. Davis, K.H. Bodawatta*, K. Schmidt*, E.L. Lewis*, D.S. Neumeister*, et al. Testing the hotspot hypothesis of lek evolution in the white-crowned manakin (manuscript in preparation).

Iverson, J.B., H. Klondaris*, C. Angel*, and W.P. Tori. (2016). Olfaction as cue for nest-site choice in turtles. Chelonian Conservation and Biology 15(2): 206-213.

Tori, W.P., K.H. Bodawatta*, K. Schmidt*, E.L. Lewis*, D.S. Neumeister*, and J. Hogle*. (2016). Evaluating white-crowned manakin (Dixiphia pipra) use of space in the Ecuadorian Amazon. Ornitologia Neotropical 27: 145–154.

Hidalgo J.R., Blake J.B., Loiselle B.A., Ryder T.B., Durães R., , and & Tori W.P. (2012). Nest site selection by Blue-crowned (Lepidothrix coronata) and Wire-tailed (Pipra filicauda) Manakins in Lowland Ecuador. Ornithologia Neotropical 23: 63-71.l

Durães R, JG Blake, BA Loiselle, TB Ryder, WP Tori, and JR Hidalgo. (2011). Vocalization activity at leks of six manakin (Pipridae) species in eastern Ecuador. Ornitología Neotropical

Ryder, B.T., W.T. Tori, J.G. Blake, B.A. Loiselle, and P.G. Parker. (2009). Mate choice for genetic quality: a test of the heterozygosity and compatibility hypothesis in a lek breeding bird. Behavioral Ecology 21: 203- 2010.

Tori, W.P., et al. (2008). Advances in sexual selection theory: insights from tropical avifauna Ornitología Neotropical, 19: 151-163

Barber, N.A., R.J. Marquis, and W.P. Tori. (2008). Invasive prey impacts distribution of native specialist predators. Ecology, 89: 2678–2683.

Loiselle, B.A., J.G. Blake, R. Durães, T.B. Ryder, and W.P. Tori. (2007). Environmental segregation in lek sites among six co-occurring species of manakins (Aves: Pipridae) in eastern Ecuador. Auk 124: 420-431.

Loiselle, B.A., T.B. Ryder, R. Durães, W.P. Tori, J.G. Blake, and P.G. Parker. (2007). Kin selection does not explain male aggregation at leks of 4 manakin species. Behavioral Ecology 18: 287-291.

*Flannagan, Karen, Kevin Schmidt, and Wendy Tori. (2012). Lance-tailed Manakin (Chiroxiphia lanceolata), Neotropical Birds Online (T. S. Schulenberg, Editor). Ithaca: Cornell Lab of Ornithology

*Kanaski, Alina, Clara Stuligross, Jose Pareja, and Wendy Tori. (2012). Long-tailed Manakin (Chiroxiphia linearis), Neotropical Birds Online (T. S. Schulenberg, Editor). Ithaca: Cornell Lab of Ornithology;

*Susuki, Ian, Natsumi Fearnside, Wendy Tori, and Jose I. Pareja. (2012). Screaming Piha (Lipaugus vociferans), Neotropical Birds Online (T. S. Schulenberg, Editor). Ithaca: Cornell Lab of Ornithology

American Ornithologists' Union (AOU)

Ecological Society of America (ESA)

I teach at Earlham because I like the diversity and how the community embraces people no matter where you come from, or who you are. The students are simply amazing, they are curious about everything, and want to learn as much as they can in a hands-on, experiential way, while gaining a solid understanding of the sciences. I also like engaging students and the community in learning about natural history through our well known Vicki-Penziner Matson expeditions (/vicki-penziner-matson-field-trips/).

I have been in different places around the world, and Earlham students stick out because they are motivated, hardworking, energetic, and they strive for their voices to be heard. They are fully engaged inside and outside the classroom, in the field, in the arts, and they never give up no matter how hard the task at hand. They are ready to embrace challenges locally and globally. They want to change the world.

Earlham students have been actively working with me since 2008. They have co-authored articles, they have contributed to my long-term Amazon Manakin Project. Most importantly they have been involved in real science from planning, to troubleshooting, to wrestling with the findings, and publishing our results. I have work with student doing research projects in the following places:

  • United States Indiana (Bluebird Project) and Nebraska (Painted Turtle project collaboration w/ Dr. John Iverson)
  • Peru (Species diversity and altitudinal gradients)
  • Ecuador (Sexual Selection theories, tracking and Manakins)
  • New Zealand (Diversity changes in inter tidal zones of Kaikoura)
  • Borneo (various projects with primates, butterflies and birds)
  • Galapagos (Natural History of the Galapagos Islands)

Wendy has led and co-led students in a variety of off campus programs. She has taught courses in:

  • Peru (Tropical Ecology, Conservation and species diversity);
  • Galapagos (Natural History and Evolution);
  • Borneo (Tropical Ecology, Primate Conservation and People);
  • Bahamas (Iguana Research in the Exumas).
  • New Zealand (Environment and Sustainability- Semester abroad program)
  • Nebraska (Painted Turtles)

My family, bird watching, walking through the woods, traveling, cooking, running, reading, camping, playing games, playing D&D, and doing sports (volleyball, racquetball and basketball).

Earlham College, an independent, residential college, aspires to provide the highest-quality undergraduate education in the liberal arts and sciences, shaped by the distinctive perspectives of the Religious Society of Friends (Quakers).

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