*GEOL 112 GEOHAZARDS (3 credits) An introduction to geological and environmental hazards — earthquakes, volcanic eruptions, landslides, tsunamis, flooding, costal storms, tornadoes and climate change, and their effects upon human societies. Introduces the science behind the natural phenomena: causes behind different hazards, methods of forensic analysis, prediction, etc. Explores the human response to geohazards: the mitigation (or inadvertent aggravation) of hazards, political/economic/social factors, cost-benefit analysis, emergency response and how to avoid or survive hazards. (A-QR)
*GEOL 113 CLIMATES FUTURE, CLIMATES PAST (3 credits) Examines Earth’s turbulent climatic past in an exploration of its possible futures. Combines the basic tenets of geology with current atmospheric system data in an effort to clarify our concurrently known and unknowable climate system. Designed for students who want to understand the ways in which the Earth we experience comes into being. First-year appropriate. A non-lab course. (A-QR)
*GEOL 201 EARTH AND THE ENVIRONMENT (4 credits) Introduces whole-Earth materials and processes with a focus on the formation of and human interaction with surficial environments. Examines phenomena such as volcanoes, earthquakes, wasting, flooding, desertification and climate change. Topics include other elements of environmental geoscience such as sustainable development, water supply, mining, agriculture and waste disposal. Laboratory and field trip exercises employ maps, specimens, real-world datasets, and local geological sites and resources. Specifically designed for students who want to better understand Earth and how it works. First-year appropriate. Lab. (A-QR, D-I)
*GEOL 202 METEOROLOGY (4 credits) This course introduces the study of the atmosphere, climate and weather. It surveys atmospheric phenomena and places them in social context for analysis and reflection. Laboratory activities and field trips examine these phenomena and provide methods to visualize and conceptualize these largely invisible processes. This course is designed for students who want to understand weather manifestations like temperature, humidity and wind, as well as hazards like thunderstorms, tornadoes and hurricanes. First-year appropriate. Lab. (A-QR)
*GEOL 211 PHYSICAL GEOLOGY (4 credits) An introductory course investigating fundamental Earth materials, plate tectonics and processes changing the surface of the Earth. Lab exercises address mineral and rock identification, topographic and geologic map interpretation and geologic history interpretation. Field trips explore local Paleozoic limestone outcrops, glacial sequences and fluvial systems. Lab. (A-QR)
GEOL 285 INDEPENDENT STUDY (1-3 credits) An independent research opportunity for students wishing to extend study of a topic from GEOL 111 or 211 to another area of interest, perhaps their major. Departmental approval required pending an acceptable proposal and faculty availability. Prerequisite: GEOL 201 or 211.
*GEOL 301 FIELD STUDIES (1 credit)This Early Semester Break trip includes hiking, camping, cooking, and general exploration of an area of geologic interest. Tents, cook kits and transportation are provided by the Geology Department. Prerequisite: any GEOL course, including concurrent enrollment. (W)
*GEOL 314 INTERPRETING EARTH HISTORY (4 credits) Summarizes Earth's evolution through the past 4.6 billion years and examines the evidence that has allowed us to interpret changes in Earth and its life. Weekly laboratories include study of Earth materials and methods of their analysis. Primary objective: to provide students context for understanding current discussions on the nature, tempo and initiation of change in the natural world. Required Lab and field trips. Prerequisite: GEOL 201 or 211, or consent of the instructor. (A-QR, RCH)
*GEOL 315 EARTH MATERIALS (4 credits) Focus on the description and occurrence of common rock-forming minerals as well as the genesis, classification and geologic significance of major rock groups. Lab familiarizes students with physical rock and mineral specimens and common optical techniques. Prerequisites: GEOL 201 or 211, or consent of the instructor. (RCH)
*GEOL 316 GEOCHEMISTRY AND ENVIRONMENTAL CHANGE (4 credits) This introduction to the chemical Earth helps students understand geoscientific phenomena and environmental processes by applying thermodynamics and kinetics as fundamental relationships. Students explore the structures and activities of atoms and matter; the formation of planets, rocks and minerals; the nature of Earth's core, mantle, crust and skin; and the impact of human activities and surface conditions on Earth materials and living things. Coursework focuses on scientific literacy by incorporating primary literature and building writing skills through journaling and report- and paper-writing. Prerequisite: GEOL 201. (WI)
GEOL 400 FIELD STUDIES (0-4 credits) Declared Geology majors and minors given first preference if course is oversubscribed. During this 12- to 16-day field excursion, students study rocks of another geologic region, such as the mountainous areas of the East, Southwest or West; the mining districts of the North, West or Southwest; the Atlantic or Gulf coasts or off-shore islands; historically significant areas such as Scotland or Iceland, or other geologically significant sites. Topics include modern geologic processes, stratigraphy, structure and geologic history through the use of applicable standard field techniques, including geologic mapping and the collection, analysis and presentation of field data. Offered during alternate May Terms. Prerequisites: GEOL 201 or 211. (AY)
GEOL 401 PALEONTOLOGY (4 credits) Examines the principles by which geoscientists employ fossils to determine the ages and ancient environments of fossil-bearing rock units. Includes references to modern analogs of geologically significant fossil groups. Field projects employ the rich fossil faunas of the Richmond area. Laboratory study of fossil groups is self-conducted by students. Two weekend day trips required. Prerequisite: GEOL 314. (AY)
GEOL 410 STRUCTURAL GEOLOGY AND TECTONICS (4 credits) Examines the architecture of the Earth's crust as well as the principles involved in the formation of primary and secondary earth structures, their historical significance, and their relation to economic resources and landscape features. Lab. Prerequisite: GEOL 315. (AY)
GEOL 411 TECTONICS AND GEOPHYSICS (4 credits) Introduces the basic geophysical concepts necessary to understand deep Earth structure and dynamics. Fundamental concepts such as paleomagnetism, gravity, seismicity and heat flow are examined in the context of plate tectonic theory and also applied to environmental problems and energy resource exploration. Lab. Prerequisites: GEOL 315. (AY)
GEOL 412 PETROLOGY (4 credits)This course focuses on the geologic significance, identification and petrogenesis of igneous and metamorphic rocks. Laboratory time is devoted to the identification of rock types in hand sample and thin section and analysis using mineralogical and geochemical data. Prerequisite: GEOL 315. (AY)
GEOL 420 EARTH SURFACE PROCESSES (4 credits) Surveys significant continental landscapes through analyses of the processes that form them. Emphasizes understanding of fluid mechanics and sediment transport, and applies those concepts to understanding how fluids shape the surface of the earth. Field trips and outdoor labs examine local landforms. Prerequisite: GEOL 314. (AY)
GEOL 421 DEPOSITIONAL ENVIRONMENTS (4 credits) Examines the processes that generate, transport, modify, deposit and lithify sedimentary materials and the products that result. Emphasizes understanding modern sedimentary depositional environments as a means of interpreting ancient sedimentary sequences. Laboratory exercises teach the identification and analysis of clastics and carbonates in hand-specimen and thin-section. Field exercises analyze local and regional fluvial environments and glacial sediments, and Paleozoic carbonates. Prerequisite: GEOL 314. (AY)
GEOL 430 GROUND & SURFACE WATER HYDROLOGY (4 credits) This course advances student understanding of water science and global water concerns by examining Earth’s surface and groundwater systems using theoretical, empirical, physical and chemical perspectives. Alongside exploration of water system fundamentals, this course emphasizes critical social issues, from transport and contamination to supply and treatment. Coursework includes research projects, scientific writing, field sampling, laboratory analysis, and modeling and analysis in GIS. Prerequisite: GEOL 316. (AY)
GEOL 431 SOILS AND SUSTAINABLE AGRICULTURE (4 credits) Introduces students to the skin of the Earth, examining soil as both a geological material and a natural resource. Explores the awesome complexity of soils from molecular to landscape-scale and examines the particular problems soils pose to human-landscape interaction. Topics include the formation, physics, chemistry, ecology and sustainable management of the world’s soils. Laboratory exercises incorporate field description, laboratory analysis and large-scale research questions. One weekend field trip is required. Prerequisite: GEOL 316. (AY)
GEOL 432 CLIMATE SYSTEMS (4 credits)Interpreting planetary atmospheres, reconstructing paleoenvironments and predicting our future world all rely on understanding climate systems. This course examines the past, present and future of Earth’s climate, as well as the applicability of such studies to the rest of the Solar System. Paleoclimatology will include both important climate history and methods of interpreting paleoenvironments. Current climatology will include interactions between air, ice, oceans, rock, soil, living things and precipitation. Planetary climatology will include the evolution of the Solar System and the interaction of the Sun and planetary bodies. Laboratories will utilize mathematics and computation to analyze authentic climate data of varying scales as well as rock and soil samples. Prerequisite: GEOL 316.
GEOL 480 COMPREHENSIVE EXAMINATION (0 credits)An individual oral comprehensive examination.
GEOL 481 INTERNSHIPS, FIELD STUDIES AND OTHER FIELD EXPERIENCES (0-3 credits)
GEOL 482 SPECIAL TOPICS (3 credits) Selected topics determined by the instructor for upper-level study.
GEOL 483 TEACHING ASSISTANTS (1-3 credits)
GEOL 484 FORD/KNIGHT RESEARCH PROJECT (1-4 credits) Collaborative research with faculty funded by the Ford/Knight Program.
GEOL 485 INDEPENDENT STUDY (1-3 credits) An investigation of a specific topic conceived and planned by the student in consultation with a faculty adviser. Requires submission of the final draft of a term paper and its public oral presentation before the first reading day of a semester. Prerequisites: Senior standing and faculty adviser's prior approval of project proposal.
GEOL 486 INDEPENDENT STUDENT RESEARCH (0-3 credits)
GEOL 487 RESEARCH ASSISTANTS (0-3 credits)
GEOL 488 SENIOR CAPSTONE EXPERIENCE (1 credit)Requires utilization of technical literature, regular oral presentations, and an independent project. Majors must take this course at least once, but may take it twice. Prerequisites: GEOL 314, 315 and 316.